Prevalence of adiposity-based chronic disease in middle-aged adults from Czech Republic: The Kardiovize study

Juan P. Gonzalez-Rivas, Jeffrey I. Mechanick, José Pantaleón Hernandez, María M. Infante-Garcia, Iuliia Pavlovska, José R. Medina-Inojosa, Sarka Kunzova, Ramfis Nieto-Martinez, Jan Brož, Luca Busetto, Geraldo A. Maranhao Neto, Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, Jana Urbanová, Gorazd B. Stokin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aims/Hypothesis: The need for understanding obesity as a chronic disease, its stigmatization, and the lack of actionability related to it demands a new approach. The adiposity-based chronic disease (ABCD) model is based on adiposity amount, distribution, and function, with a three stage complication-centric rather than a body mass index (BMI)-centric approach. The prevalence rates and associated risk factors are presented. Methods: In total, 2159 participants were randomly selected from Czechia. ABCD was established as BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 or high body fat percent, or abdominal obesity and then categorized by their adiposity-based complications: Stage 0: none; Stage 1: mild/moderate; Stage 2: severe. Results: ABCD prevalence was 62.8%. Stage 0 was 2.3%; Stage 1 was 31.4%; Stage 2 was 29.1%. Comparing with other classifiers, participants in Stage 2 were more likely to have diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome than those with overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, and increased fat mass. ABCD showed the highest sensitivity and specificity to detect participants with peripheral artery disease, increased intima media, and vascular disease. Conclusion/Interpretation: The ABCD model provides a more sensitive approach that facilitates the early detection and stratification of participants at risk compared to traditional classifiers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)535-544
Number of pages10
JournalObesity Science and Practice
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2021


  • adiposity
  • cardiovascular disease
  • epidemiology
  • obesity
  • overweight

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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