Patients with chronic gastrointestinal, hepatic, and renal disease are frequently encountered in clinical practice. This is due in part to the rising prevalence of risk factors associated with these conditions. These patients are increasingly being considered for surgical intervention and are at higher risk for multiple perioperative complications. Many are able to safely undergo surgery but require unique considerations to ensure optimal perioperative care. In this review, we highlight relevant perioperative physiology and outline our approach to the evaluation and management of patients with select chronic gastrointestinal, hepatic, and renal diseases. A comprehensive preoperative evaluation with a multidisciplinary approach is often beneficial, and specialist involvement should be considered. Intraoperative and postoperative plans should be individualized based on the unique medical and surgical characteristics of each patient.
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