Preclinical In Vitro and In Vivo Evidence of an Antitumor Effect of CX-4945, a Casein Kinase II Inhibitor, in Cholangiocarcinoma

Kais Zakharia, Katsuyuki Miyabe, Yu Wang, Dehai Wu, Catherine D. Moser, Mitesh J. Borad, Lewis R. Roberts

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


PURPOSE: We investigated the antitumor effect of the casein kinase II (CK2) inhibitor CX-4945 on cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). METHODS: We assessed the effect of CX-4945 alone and/or in combination with gemcitabine and cisplatin on cell viability, colony formation, and apoptosis of CCA cell lines and on in vivo growth of HuCCT1 xenografts. RESULTS: CX-4945 dose-dependently decreased viability of HuCCT1, EGI-1, and Liv27 and decreased phospho-AKT/total AKT and phospho-PTEN/total PTEN ratios. CX-4945 significantly increased caspase 3/7 activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. CX-4945 significantly enhanced the effect of gemcitabine or cisplatin on HuCCT1, EGI-1, and Liv27 cells and inhibited the phosphorylation of DNA repairing enzymes XRCC1 and MDC1. Further, CX-4945 alone significantly inhibited growth of HuCCT1 mouse xenograft tumors. Combining CX-4945 with gemcitabine and cisplatin was more potent than CX-4945 alone or gemcitabine/cisplatin. The effect of CX-4945 on cell proliferation, apoptosis, the PI3K/AKT pathway, and DNA repair was confirmed in the mouse xenografts. CONCLUSION: CX-4945 has an antiproliferative effect on CCA and enhances the effect of gemcitabine and cisplatin through its inhibitory effect on the PI3K/AKT pathway and DNA repair.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)143-153
Number of pages11
JournalTranslational Oncology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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