Hypothesis: Polyadenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase (PARP) has been implicated as a mediator of inflammation and tissue necrosis in murine models of human stroke and myocardial infarction. This study was designed to determine whether PARP modulates skeletal muscle injury and cytokine-growth factor levels during ischemia-reperfusion. Design: Prospective controlled animal study. Setting: Medical school-affiliated university hospital. Interventions: Mice were divided into 2 groups-treated (PJ) and untreated; all mice were subjected to unilateral hind limb tourniquet ischemia followed by 4 or 48 hours of reperfusion. In treated mice, PJ34, an ultrapotent-specific PARP inhibitor was given immediately before ischemia and prior to reperfusion. A group of PARP-1 knockout mice (PARP-/-) were also subjected to hind limb ischemia followed by 48 hours of reperfusion. Main Outcome Measure: After ischemia-reperfusion, muscle was harvested for measurement of edema, viability, cytokine, and vascular endothelial growth factor content. Results: The PJ34-treated mice had increased skeletal muscle viability when compared with the untreated mice after 4 and 48 hours of reperfusion (P<.01). Viability between PARP-/- and PJ34-treated mice were similar at 48 hours of reperfusion (P>.05), and it exceeded that of untreated mice (P<.01). Tissue edema was unaltered by PARP inhibition. Tissue levels of cytokine were only different (P<.05) in PJ34-treated vs untreated mice at 48 hours of reperfusion. Vascular endothelial growth factor levels in PJ34-treated mice were markedly reduced when compared with untreated mice only after 4 hours of reperfusion (P<.01), and in PARP-/- mice (P<.01) at 48 hours of reperfusion. Conclusion: Polyadenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase modulates skeletal muscle viability, cytokine and vascular endothelial growth factor synthesis during reperfusion. Polyadenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase inhibition may represent a novel method to modulate skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion injury.
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