Pharmacogenomic testing and outcome among depressed patients in a tertiary care outpatient psychiatric consultation practice

J. R. Rundell, M. Harmandayan, J. P. Staab

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2 Scopus citations


The authors tested the hypothesis that pharmacogenomic genotype knowledge is associated with better clinical and cost outcomes in depressed patients, after controlling for other factors that might differentiate tested and non-tested patients. Medical records of 251 patients, seen in the Mayo Clinic Rochester outpatient psychiatric practice, who had patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scores before and after consultation, were reviewed. Comparisons of differences in pre-consultation and post-consultation depression scores and slopes between tested and non-tested patients and between genotype categories of tested patients, were evaluated, along with healthcare cost and utilization comparisons between tested and non-tested patients, using Kruskal-Wallis tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests and group mean comparisons, controlling for significant univariate demographic and clinical differences. Tested patients had significantly higher depression diagnosis frequency, baseline PHQ-9 scores, family history of depression, psychiatric hospitalization history, and higher numbers of antidepressant, mood stabilizer and antipsychotic medication trials. After controlling for these differences, there were no differences between tested and non-tested patients in post-baseline depression scores or slopes for CYP genotype categories. For patients with 5-HTTLPR testing, there was significantly more depression score improvement for patients with the long/long genotype at time 4 (N=55, χ2-value = 8.0492, P=0.018) and at time 5 (N=44, χ2-value = 6.1492, P=0.046). For a subgroup (n = 46) with ≥ two pre-and ≥ two post-baseline PHQ-9 scores, the mean difference between pre-baseline and post-baseline PHQ-9 score slopes for tested patients was 0.08 (median 0.01; range 1.20 to 0.15) compared with 0.13 (median 0.02; range 0.18 to 2.16) for nontested patients (P=0.03). Among genotype categories, mean differences between pre-consultation and post-consultation slopes were significantly better for poor CYP2D6 metabolizers than intermediate or extensive metabolizers (P=0.04); there was a trend for slope differences to be better for 5-HTTLPR long/long genotype patients (P=0.06). Subsets of local tested and consultant-adjusted non-tested controls (n = 19), who had 8 years of longitudinal care within the health system, had similar overall mean healthcare costs before and after testing; however, tested patients on average had significantly fewer time-adjusted post-baseline psychiatric admissions (0.8 vs 3.8, P=0.04) and fewer time-adjusted psychiatric consultations and comprehensive mental health-specialty evaluations (4.2 vs 9.9, P=0.03). Prospective study is indicated as to whether and how pharmacogenomic testing in a psychiatric consultation practice may improve clinical and cost outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere6
JournalTranslational psychiatry
StatePublished - May 2011


  • Depression treatment
  • Individualized medicine
  • Pharmacogenomic
  • Translational medicine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Biological Psychiatry


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