Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) can potentially interact with multiple prescription medications. We examined the prevalence of co-prescription of DOACs with interacting medications and its impact on outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Patients with AF treated with a DOAC from 2010 to 2017 at the Mayo Clinic and co-prescribed medications that are inhibitors or inducers of the P-glycoprotein and/or Cytochrome P450 3A4 pathways were identified. The outcomes of stroke, transient ischemic attack, or systemic embolism, major bleeding, and minor bleeds were compared between patients with and without an enzyme inducer. Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the association between interacting medications and outcomes. Of 8,576 patients with AF (mean age 70 ± 12 years, 35% female) prescribed a DOAC (38.6% apixaban, 35.8% rivaroxaban, 25.6% dabigatran), 2,610 (30.4%) were on at least 1 interacting agent: the majority were on an enzyme inhibitor (n = 2,592). Prescribed medications included non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker (n = 1,412; 16.5%), antiarrhythmic medication (n = 790; 9.2%), antidepressant (n = 659; 7.7%), antibiotic/antifungal (n = 77; 0.90%), antiepileptics (n = 17; 0.2%) and immunosuppressant medications (n = 19; 0.2%). Patients on an interacting medication were more likely to receive a lower dose of DOAC than indicated by the manufacturer's labeling (15.0% vs 11.4%, p <0.0001). In multivariable analysis, co-prescription of an enzyme inhibitor was not associated with risk of any bleeding (hazard ratio 0.87 [0.71 to 1.05], p = 0.15) or stroke, transient ischemic attack, or systemic embolism (hazard ratio 0.82 [0.51 to 1.31], p = 0.39). In conclusion, DOACs are co-prescribed with medications with potential interactions in 30.4% of patients with AF. Co-prescription of DOACs and these drugs are not associated with increased risk of adverse embolic or bleeding outcomes in our cohort.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine