Outcomes following surgical management of vagus nerve stimulator-related infection: A retrospective multi-institutional study

Hirotaka Hasegawa, Jamie J. Van Gompel, W. Richard Marsh, Robert E. Wharen, Richard S. Zimmerman, David B. Burkholder, Brian N. Lundstrom, Jeffrey W. Britton, Fredric B. Meyer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


OBJECTIVE Surgical site infection (SSI) is a rare but significant complication after vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) placement. Treatment options range from antibiotic therapy alone to hardware removal. The optimal therapeutic strategy remains open to debate. Therefore, the authors conducted this retrospective multicenter analysis to provide insight into the optimal management of VNS-related SSI (VNS-SSI). METHODS Under institutional review board approval and utilizing an institutional database with 641 patients who had undergone 808 VNS-related placement surgeries and 31 patients who had undergone VNS-related hardware removal surgeries, the authors retrospectively analyzed VNS-SSI. RESULTS Sixteen cases of VNS-SSI were identified; 12 of them had undergone the original VNS placement procedure at the authors' institutions. Thus, the incidence of VNS-SSI was calculated as 1.5%. The mean (± standard deviation) time from the most recent VNS-related surgeries to infection was 42 (± 27) days. Methicillin-sensitive staphylococcus was the usual causative bacteria (58%). Initial treatments included antibiotics with or without nonsurgical procedures (n = 6), nonremoval open surgeries for irrigation (n = 3), generator removal (n = 3), and total or near-total removal of hardware (n = 4). Although 2 patients were successfully treated with antibiotics alone or combined with generator removal, removal of both the generator and leads was eventually required in 14 patients. Mild swallowing difficulties and hoarseness occurred in 2 patients with eventual resolution. CONCLUSIONS Removal of the VNS including electrode leads combined with antibiotic administration is the definitive treatment but has a risk of causing dysphagia. If the surgeon finds dense scarring around the vagus nerve, the prudent approach is to snip the electrode close to the nerve as opposed to attempting to unwind the lead completely. https://thejns.org/doi/abs/10.3171/2020.7.JNS201385.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)783-791
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of neurosurgery
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2021


  • Epilepsy
  • Hardware infection
  • Surgical complication
  • Vagus nerve stimulator

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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