Outcomes and periprocedural management of cardiac implantable electronic devices in patients with carcinoid heart disease

Robert C. Ward, Sushil Allen Luis, Samuel A. Shabtaie, Patricia A. Pellikka, Heidi M. Connolly, William Miranda, Hartzell Schaff, Win Kuen Shen, Ammar M. Killu, Yong Mei Cha, Samuel J. Asirvatham, Abhishek J. Deshumkh, Christopher V. DeSimone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Carcinoid heart disease (CHD) is a rare complication of hormonally active neuroendocrine tumors that often requires surgical intervention. Data on cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) implantation in patients with CHD are limited. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the experience of CIED implantation in patients with CHD. Methods: Patients with a diagnosis of CHD and a CIED procedure from January 1, 1995, through June 1, 2020, were identified using a Mayo Clinic proprietary data retrieval tool. Retrospective review was performed to extract relevant data, which included indications for implant, procedural details, complications, and mortality. Results: A total of 27 patients (55.6% male; mean age at device implant 65.6 ± 8.8 years) with cumulative follow-up of 75 patient-years (median 1.1 years; interquartile range 0.4–4.6 years) were included for analysis. The majority of implanted devices were dual-chamber permanent pacemakers (63%). Among all CHD patients who underwent any cardiac surgery, the incidence of CIED implantation was 12%. The most common indication for implantation was high-grade heart block (66.7%). Device implant complication rates were modest (14.8%). No patient suffered carcinoid crisis during implantation, and there was no periimplant mortality. Median time from implant to death was 2.5 years, with 1-year mortality of 15%. Conclusion: CHD is a morbid condition, and surgical valve intervention carries associated risks, particularly a high requirement for postoperative pacing needs. Our data suggest that CIED implantation can be performed relatively safely. Clinicians must be aware of the relevant carcinoid physiology and take appropriate precautions to mitigate risks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2094-2100
Number of pages7
JournalHeart rhythm
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2021


  • Carcinoid heart disease
  • Cardiac implantable electronic device
  • Heart block
  • Pacemaker
  • Valve replacement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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