The acetylcholine receptor ganglionic (G-AchR) antibody is a very specific serologic test for autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. The spectrum of autoimmune (or presumed to be autoimmune) autonomic disorders, however, is quite broad and positivity to this antibody has been reported in a variety of other conditions, albeit infrequent and with low titer. This review describes the autonomic neuropathies most frequently encountered in clinical practice in which an autoimmune etiology is suspected. They include a chronic form (pure autonomic failure) and limited autonomic neuropathies with predominant involvement of one neurotransmitter type (i.e., cholinergic vs. adrenergic) or one system (such as the gastrointestinal system) or a distal small fiber dysfunction. In each of these conditions, occasional positivity to the G-AchR antibody has been found, but the pathogenetic significance of such finding is still uncertain. Other antigens and antibodies yet to be identified are more likely to be responsible in these disorders.
- Orthostatic hypotension
- Pure autonomic failure
- Visceral neuropathy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrine and Autonomic Systems
- Clinical Neurology
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience