Noninvasive Hemodynamic Assessment of Shock Severity and Mortality Risk Prediction in the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit

Jacob C. Jentzer, Brandon M. Wiley, Nandan S. Anavekar, Sorin V. Pislaru, Sunil V. Mankad, Courtney E. Bennett, Gregory W. Barsness, Steven M. Hollenberg, David R. Holmes, Jae K. Oh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Objectives: This study sought to define the 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiographic hemodynamics associated with each Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI) stage, and to determine their association with mortality. Background: The SCAI shock stages classification stratifies mortality risk in cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) patients, but the echocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters that define these SCAI shock stages are unknown. Methods: Unique CICU patients admitted from 2007 to 2015 who had a transthoracic echocardiogram within 1 day of CICU admission were included. Echocardiographic variables were evaluated as a function of SCAI shock stage. Multivariable logistic regression determined the association between echocardiographic parameters with adjusted hospital mortality. Results: We included 5,453 patients with a median age of 69.3 years (interquartile range: 58.2 to 79.0 years) (37% women), and a median left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 50% (interquartile range: 35% to 61%). Higher SCAI shock stages were associated with lower LVEF and worse systemic hemodynamics. Hospital mortality was higher in patients with LVEF <40%, cardiac index <1.8 l/min/m2, stroke volume index <35 ml/m2, cardiac power output <0.6 W, or medial early mitral valve inflow velocity to early diastolic annular velocity (E/e′) ratio >15 (particularly in SCAI shock Stages A to C). After multivariable adjustment, only stroke volume index <35 ml/m2 (adjusted odds ratio: 2.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.4 to 3.0; p < 0.001) and E/e′ ratio >15 (adjusted odds ratio: 1.52; 95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 2.23; p = 0.03) remained associated with higher hospital mortality. Conclusions: Noninvasive 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiographic parameters correlate with the SCAI shock stages and improve risk stratification for hospital mortality in CICU patients. Low stroke volume index and high E/e′ ratio demonstrated the strongest association with hospital mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)321-332
Number of pages12
JournalJACC: Cardiovascular Imaging
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2021


  • Doppler
  • cardiac intensive care unit
  • cardiogenic shock
  • echocardiography
  • hemodynamics
  • left ventricular ejection fraction
  • mortality
  • shock

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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