Although medicine in general and more specifically surgical and anesthetic techniques have advanced over the last 10 years, the number of neonatal surgical emergencies remains stable. In fact, due to the neonatal differences in regard to their anatomy, pharmacology, and physiology, neonatal mortality has been on a much slower decline during the last two decades in comparison to other age groups. However, advances in perinatology have made it possible that critically ill newborns show improved survival. The most common neonatal surgical emergencies affect the gastrointestinal system. This review will focus on the anesthetic management of neonatal surgical emergencies of the abdomen.
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