Background: Clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes in children and adolescents with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are not well characterized. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 80 patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 who commenced tumor surveillance at ≤18 years of age. Results: Fifty-six patients (70%) developed an endocrine tumor by age ≤18 years (median age = 14 years, range = 6–18 years). Primary hyperparathyroidism occurred in >80% of patients, with >70% undergoing parathyroidectomy, in which less-than-subtotal (<3-gland) resection resulted in decreased disease-free outcomes versus subtotal (3–3.5-gland) or total (4-gland) parathyroidectomy (median 27 months versus not reached; P = .005). Pancreaticoduodenal neuroendocrine tumors developed in ∼35% of patients, of whom >70% had nonfunctioning tumors, >35% had insulinomas, and <5% had gastrinomas, with ∼15% having metastases and >55% undergoing surgery. Pituitary tumors developed in >30% of patients, and ∼35% were macroprolactinomas. Tumor occurrence in male patients and female patients was not significantly different. Genetic analyses revealed 38 germline MEN1 mutations, of which 3 were novel. Conclusion: Seventy percent of children aged ≤18 years with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 develop endocrine tumors, which include parathyroid tumors for which less-than-subtotal parathyroidectomy should be avoided; pancreaticoduodenal neuroendocrine tumors that may metastasize; and pituitary macroprolactinomas.
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