Mortality Risk Factors among Infants Receiving Dialysis in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

Keia R. Sanderson, Bradley Warady, William Carey, Veeral Tolia, Marcella H. Boynton, Daniel K. Benjamin, Wesley Jackson, Matthew Laughon, Reese H. Clark, Rachel G. Greenberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: To identify risk factors associated with mortality for infants receiving dialysis in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Study design: In this retrospective cohort study, we extracted data from the Pediatrix Clinical Data Warehouse on all infants who received dialysis in the NICU from 1999 to 2018. Using a Cox proportional hazards model with robust SEs we estimated the mortality hazard ratios associated with demographics, birth details, medical complications, and treatment exposures. Results: We identified 273 infants who received dialysis. Median gestational age at birth was 35 weeks (interquartile values 33-37), median birth weight was 2570 g (2000-3084), 8% were small for gestational age, 41% white, and 72% male. Over one-half of the infants (59%) had a kidney anomaly; 71 (26%) infants died before NICU hospital discharge. Factors associated with increased risk of dying after dialysis initiation included lack of kidney anomalies, Black race, gestational age of <32 weeks, necrotizing enterocolitis, dialysis within 7 days of life, and receipt of paralytics or vasopressors (all P <.05). Conclusion: In this cohort of infants who received dialysis in the NICU over 2 decades, more than 70% of infants survived. The probability of death was greater among infants without a history of a kidney anomaly and those with risk factors consistent with greater severity of illness at dialysis initiation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)159-165
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Pediatrics
StatePublished - Mar 2022


  • acute kidney injury
  • chronic kidney disease
  • continuous kidney replacement therapy
  • dialysis
  • neonatal
  • peritoneal dialysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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