Monoallelic IFT140 pathogenic variants are an important cause of the autosomal dominant polycystic kidney-spectrum phenotype

Genomics England Research Consortium, the HALT PKD, CRISP, DIPAK, ADPKD Modifier, and TAME PKD studies

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), characterized by progressive cyst formation/expansion, results in enlarged kidneys and often end stage kidney disease. ADPKD is genetically heterogeneous; PKD1 and PKD2 are the common loci (∼78% and ∼15% of families) and GANAB, DNAJB11, and ALG9 are minor genes. PKD is a ciliary-associated disease, a ciliopathy, and many syndromic ciliopathies have a PKD phenotype. In a multi-cohort/-site collaboration, we screened ADPKD-diagnosed families that were naive to genetic testing (n = 834) or for whom no PKD1 and PKD2 pathogenic variants had been identified (n = 381) with a PKD targeted next-generation sequencing panel (tNGS; n = 1,186) or whole-exome sequencing (WES; n = 29). We identified monoallelic IFT140 loss-of-function (LoF) variants in 12 multiplex families and 26 singletons (1.9% of naive families). IFT140 is a core component of the intraflagellar transport-complex A, responsible for retrograde ciliary trafficking and ciliary entry of membrane proteins; bi-allelic IFT140 variants cause the syndromic ciliopathy, short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD9). The distinctive monoallelic phenotype is mild PKD with large cysts, limited kidney insufficiency, and few liver cysts. Analyses of the cystic kidney disease probands of Genomics England 100K showed that 2.1% had IFT140 LoF variants. Analysis of the UK Biobank cystic kidney disease group showed probands with IFT140 LoF variants as the third most common group, after PKD1 and PKD2. The proximity of IFT140 to PKD1 (∼0.5 Mb) in 16p13.3 can cause diagnostic confusion, and PKD1 variants could modify the IFT140 phenotype. Importantly, our studies link a ciliary structural protein to the ADPKD spectrum.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)136-156
Number of pages21
JournalAmerican journal of human genetics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 6 2022


  • IFT140
  • cilia
  • ciliopathy
  • intraflagellar transport
  • monoallelic cystic disease
  • polycystic kidney disease
  • short rib thoracic dysplasia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)


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