Microsporidium Infection–Associated Acute Kidney Injury in a Patient With HIV

Janina Paula Tiulentino Sy-Go, Abigail K. Wegehaupt, Sanjeev Sethi, John C. Lieske, Matthew R. D'Costa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Patients infected with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) are at an increased risk of developing acute kidney injury (AKI) compared with patients without HIV infection. We report a rare case of disseminated Microsporidium infection–associated AKI affecting the native kidneys in a 30-year-old Asian woman with HIV infection. She initially presented to an outside institution with AKI after completing treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim [Hoffmann-La Roche]) and prednisone for Pneumocystis pneumonia. She was empirically treated with prednisone for presumed acute interstitial nephritis due to Bactrim, and her serum creatinine concentration improved from 3.0 mg/dL to 1.8 mg/dL. She was subsequently initiated on antiretroviral therapy and was also treated with ganciclovir for cytomegalovirus viremia. Because of persistent fever, she was transferred to our institution and was diagnosed with a disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection and a disseminated Microsporidium infection. Her serum creatinine concentration increased to 4.2 mg/dL. A kidney biopsy was performed because of her worsening kidney function, which revealed plasma cell–rich acute interstitial nephritis associated with disseminated Microsporidium infection. She was maintained on antiretroviral therapy and was treated with albendazole. This case highlights the fact that there are various etiologies and kidney manifestations of AKI in patients infected with HIV with equally various implications for management; thus, performing a kidney biopsy is often crucial to help elucidate the underlying pathology and guide management.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100390
JournalKidney Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2022


  • Acute interstitial nephritis
  • HIV
  • Microsporidium
  • human immunodeficiency virus
  • plasma cell

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Nephrology


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