Matrix metalloproteinase-9 contributes to parenchymal hemorrhage and necrosis in the remnant liver after extended hepatectomy in mice

Norifumi Ohashi, Tomohide Hori, Florence Chen, Sura Jermanus, Christopher B. Eckman, Akimasa Nakao, Shinji Uemoto, Justin H. Nguyen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


AIM: To investigate the effect of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) on the remnant liver after massive hepatectomy in the mouse. METHODS: Age-matched, C57BL/6 wild-type (WT), MMP-9(-/-), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1(-/-) mice were used. The mice received 80%-partial hepatectomy (PH). Samples were obtained at 6 h after 80%-PH, and we used histology, immunohistochemical staining, western blotting analysis and zymography to investigate the effect of PH on MMP-9. The role of MMP-9 after PH was investigated using a monoclonal antibody and MMP inhibitor. RESULTS: We examined the remnant liver 6 h after 80%-PH and found that MMP-9 deficiency attenuated the formation of hemorrhage and necrosis. There were significantly fewer and smaller hemorrhagic and necrotic lesions in MMP-9(-/-) remnant livers compared with WT and TIMP-1(-/-) livers (P < 0.01), with no difference between WT and TIMP-1(-/-) mice. Serum alanine aminotransaminase levels were significantly lower in MMP-9(-/-) mice compared with those in TIMP-1(-/-) mice (WT: 476 ± 83 IU/L, MMP-9(-/-): 392 ± 30 IU/L, TIMP-1(-/-): 673 ± 73 IU/L, P < 0.01). Western blotting and gelatin zymography demonstrated a lack of MMP-9 expression and activity in MMP-9(-/-) mice, which was in contrast to WT and TIMP-1(-/-) mice. No change in MMP-2 expression was observed in any of the study groups. Similar to MMP-9(-/-) mice, when WT mice were treated with MMP-9 monoclonal antibody or the synthetic inhibitor GM6001, hemorrhagic and necrotic lesions were significantly smaller and fewer than in control mice (P < 0.05). These results suggest that MMP-9 plays an important role in the development of parenchymal hemorrhage and necrosis in the small remnant liver. CONCLUSION: Successful MMP-9 inhibition attenuates the formation of hemorrhage and necrosis and might be a potential therapy to ameliorate liver injury after massive hepatectomy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2320-2333
Number of pages14
JournalWorld journal of gastroenterology
Issue number19
StatePublished - 2012


  • Hepatectomy
  • Liver failure
  • Liver remnant
  • Matrix metalloproteinase
  • Necrosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology


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