Management perspectives from the 2019 Wuhan international workshop on fulminant myocarditis

Giacomo Veronese, Enrico Ammirati, Chen Chen, Karin Klingel, Makoto Suzuki, Takahiro Okumura, Bernhard Maisch, Houjuan Zuo, Li Ni, Jiangang Jiang, Jing Zhang, Hong Wang, Ning Zhou, Carsten Tschope, Leslie T. Cooper, Dao Wen Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Fulminant myocarditis (FM) is a form of acute myocardial inflammation leading to rapid-onset hemodynamic instability due to cardiogenic shock or life-threatening arrhythmias. As highlighted by recent registries, FM is associated with high rates of death and heart transplantation, regardless of the underlying histology. Because of a paucity of evidence-based management strategies exists for this disease, an International workshop on FM was held in Wuhan, China, in October 2019, in order to share knowledge on the disease and identify areas of consensus. The present report highlights both agreements and controversies in FM management across the world, focusing the attention on areas of opportunity, FM definition, the use of endomyocardial biopsy and viral identification on heart specimens, treatment algorithms including immunosuppression and the timing of circulatory support escalation. This report incorporates the most recent recommendations from national and international professional societies. Main areas of interest and aims of future prospective observational registries and randomized controlled trials were finally identified and suggested.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)131-138
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Cardiology
StatePublished - Feb 1 2021


  • COVID-19
  • Endomyocardial biopsy
  • Fulminant myocarditis
  • Heart failure
  • Mechanical circulatory support

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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