Male osteoporosis-what are the causes, diagnostic challenges, and management

Sigridur Björnsdottir, Bart L. Clarke, Michael Mannstadt, Bente L. Langdahl

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Osteoporosis is underrecognized and undertreated in men, even though up to 25% of fractures in patients over the age of 50 years occur in men. Men develop osteoporosis with normal aging and accumulation of comorbidities that cause bone loss. Secondary causes of bone loss may be found in up to 60% of men with osteoporosis. Mortality in men who experience major fragility fracture is greater than in women. Diagnosis of osteoporosis in men is similar to women, based on low-trauma or fragility fractures, and/or bone mineral density dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) T-scores at or below −2.5. Because most clinical trials with osteoporosis drugs in men were based on bone density endpoints, not fracture reduction, the antifracture efficacy of approved treatments in men is not as well documented as that in women. Men at a high risk of fracture should be offered treatment to reduce future fractures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101766
JournalBest Practice and Research: Clinical Rheumatology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2022


  • Causes
  • Diagnostic
  • Fractures
  • Male
  • Management

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rheumatology


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