Major risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage in the young are modifiable

Edward Feldmann, Joseph P. Broderick, Walter N. Kernan, Catherine M. Viscoli, Lawrence M. Brass, Thomas Brott, Lewis B. Morgenstern, Janet Lee Wilterdink, Ralph I. Horwitz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

119 Scopus citations


Background and Purpose - To identify risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), we examined data from the Hemorrhagic Stroke Project (HSP), a case-control study of hemorrhagic stroke among men and women aged 18 to 49 years. Methods - Case subjects for the HSP were recruited from 44 hospitals in the United States. Eligibility criteria included an ICH within 30 days preceding enrollment, no history of stroke or known brain lesion. For this report, we focused on patients with primary ICH, defined as not associated with an aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation or other structural lesion. Two control subjects were sought for each case subject. A multivariate regression analysis was performed to determine risk factors for primary ICH. Results - A total of 1714 patients with hemorrhagic stroke were identified for participation in the HSP. Of these, 217 cases met the criteria for primary ICH. Cases with primary ICH were matched to 419 controls. Independent risk factors for ICH included hypertension (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 5.71; 95% CI, 3.61 to 9.05), diabetes (adjusted OR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.15 to 5.01), menopause (adjusted OR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.06 to 5.88), current cigarette smoking (adjusted OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.44), alcoholic drinks≥2/day (adjusted OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.16 to 4.32), caffeinated drinks≥5/day (adjusted OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.79), and caffeine in drugs (adjusted OR, 3.55; 95% CI, 1.24 to 10.20). Conclusions - Among young men and women, the major risk factors for primary ICH can be modified, suggesting that this type of stroke may be preventable. Our findings for caffeine and menopause warrant further study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1881-1885
Number of pages5
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2005


  • Cerebral hemorrhage
  • Risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing


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