Lumasiran for Advanced Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 1: Phase 3 ILLUMINATE-C Trial

Mini Michael, Jaap W. Groothoff, Hadas Shasha-Lavsky, John C. Lieske, Yaacov Frishberg, Eva Simkova, Anne Laure Sellier-Leclerc, Arnaud Devresse, Fitsum Guebre-Egziabher, Sevcan A. Bakkaloglu, Chebl Mourani, Rola Saqan, Richard Singer, Richard Willey, Bahru Habtemariam, John M. Gansner, Ishir Bhan, Tracy McGregor, Daniella Magen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Rationale & Objective: Lumasiran reduces urinary and plasma oxalate (POx) in patients with primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) and relatively preserved kidney function. ILLUMINATE-C evaluates the efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of lumasiran in patients with PH1 and advanced kidney disease. Study Design: Phase 3, open-label, single-arm trial. Setting & Participants: Multinational study; enrolled patients with PH1 of all ages, estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤45 mL/min/1.73 m2 (if age ≥12 months) or increased serum creatinine level (if age <12 months), and POx ≥20 μmol/L at screening, including patients with or without systemic oxalosis. Intervention: Lumasiran administered subcutaneously; 3 monthly doses followed by monthly or quarterly weight-based dosing. Outcome: Primary end point: percent change in POx from baseline to month 6 (cohort A; not receiving hemodialysis at enrollment) and percent change in predialysis POx from baseline to month 6 (cohort B; receiving hemodialysis at enrollment). Pharmacodynamic secondary end points: percent change in POx area under the curve between dialysis sessions (cohort B only); absolute change in POx; percent and absolute change in spot urinary oxalate-creatinine ratio; and 24-hour urinary oxalate adjusted for body surface area. Results: All patients (N = 21; 43% female; 76% White) completed the 6-month primary analysis period. Median age at consent was 8 (range, 0-59) years. For the primary end point, least-squares mean reductions in POx were 33.3% (95% CI, −15.2% to 81.8%) in cohort A (n = 6) and 42.4% (95% CI, 34.2%-50.7%) in cohort B (n = 15). Improvements were also observed in all pharmacodynamic secondary end points. Most adverse events were mild or moderate. No patient discontinued treatment or withdrew from the study. The most commonly reported lumasiran-related adverse events were injection-site reactions, all of which were mild and transient. Limitations: Single-arm study without placebo control. Conclusions: Lumasiran resulted in substantial reductions in POx with acceptable safety in patients with PH1 who have advanced kidney disease, supporting its efficacy and safety in this patient population. Funding: Alnylam Pharmaceuticals. Trial Registration: Registered at with study number NCT04152200 and at EudraCT with study number 2019-001346-17. Plain-Language Summary: Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is a rare genetic disease characterized by excessive hepatic oxalate production that frequently causes kidney failure. Lumasiran is an RNA interference therapeutic that is administered subcutaneously for the treatment of PH1. Lumasiran has been shown to reduce oxalate levels in the urine and plasma of patients with PH1 who have relatively preserved kidney function. In the ILLUMINATE-C study, the efficacy and safety of lumasiran were evaluated in patients with PH1 and advanced kidney disease, including a cohort of patients undergoing hemodialysis. During the 6-month primary analysis period, lumasiran resulted in substantial reductions in plasma oxalate with acceptable safety in patients with PH1 complicated by advanced kidney disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)145-155.e1
JournalAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2023


  • Lumasiran
  • RNA interference (RNAi)
  • adverse events
  • anti-drug antibodies
  • cardiac dysfunction
  • efficacy
  • glycolate
  • hemodialysis
  • kidney disease
  • nephrocalcinosis
  • pediatric
  • pharmacodynamics
  • pharmacokinetics
  • phase 3 clinical trial
  • plasma oxalate (POx)
  • primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1)
  • safety
  • systemic oxalosis
  • urinary oxalate (UOx)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology


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