Lobar intracerebral hemorrhage model in pigs: Rapid edema development in perihematomal white matter

Kenneth R. Wagner, Guohua Xi, Ya Hua, Maria Kleinholz, Gabrielle M. De Courten-Myers, Ronald E. Myers, Joseph P. Broderick, Thomas G. Brott

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

264 Scopus citations


Background and Purpose: The mechanisms underlying brain injury from intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are complex and poorly understood. To comprehensively examine pathophysiological and pathochemical alterations after ICH and to examine the effects of hematoma removal on these processes, we developed a physiologically controlled, reproducible, large-animal model of ICH in pigs (weight, 6 to 8 kg). Methods: We produced lobar hematomas by pressure-controlled infusions of 1.7 mL of autologous blood into the right frontal hemispheric white matter over 15 minutes. We froze brains in situ at 1, 3, 5, and 8 hours after hematoma induction and cut coronal sections for hematoma assessment, morphological brain examination, and immunohistochemical and water content determinations. Results: At 1 hour after blood infusion, 'translucent' white matter areas were present directly adjacent to the hematoma. These markedly edematous regions had a greater than 10% increase in water content (>85%) compared with the contralateral white matter (73%), and this increased water content persisted through 8 hours. In addition, these areas were strongly immunoreactive for serum proteins. Intravascular Evans blue dye failed to penetrate into the brain tissue at all time points, demonstrating that this serum protein accumulation and edema development were not due to increased blood-brain barrier permeability. Conclusions: Experimental lobar ICH in pigs models a prominent pathological feature of human ICH, ie, early perihematomal edema. Our findings suggest that serum proteins, originating from the hematoma, accumulate in adjacent white matter and result in rapid and prolonged edema after ICH. This interstitial edema likely corresponds to the low densities on CT scans and the hyperintensities on T2-weighted MR images that surround intracerebral hematomas acutely after human ICH.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)490-497
Number of pages8
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1996


  • brain edema
  • cerebral hemorrhage
  • pigs
  • white matter

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing


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