Leptotrichia Bacteremia: 10-Year Retrospective Clinical Analysis and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles

Nischal Ranganath, Joshua D. Shirley, Douglas W. Challener, Ryan W. Stevens, Dalton R. Kind, Isin Y. Comba, Robin Patel, Audrey N. Schuetz, Aditya S. Shah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Leptotrichia species are anaerobic, Gram-negative bacilli increasingly recognized as pathogens capable of causing invasive infections such as bloodstream infection (BSI), particularly among immunocompromised patients. However, there is a paucity of data regarding epidemiology, antimicrobial susceptibility, optimal treatment, and clinical outcomes among patients with Leptotrichia bacteremia. Patient risk factors, treatment approaches, and outcomes of a retrospective cohort of adult patients with Leptotrichia BSI at a tertiary medical center (Mayo Clinic Rochester [MCR]) were evaluated. Concurrently, species, temporal trends, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) results of Leptotrichia isolates submitted to a reference laboratory (Mayo Clinic Laboratories) over the past 10 years were examined. We identified 224 blood culture isolates of Leptotrichia species, with 26 isolates from patients treated at MCR. The most frequent species included L. trevisanii (49%), L. buccalis (24%), and L. wadei (16%). Leptotrichia species demonstrated .90% susceptibility to penicillin, metronidazole, ertapenem, and piperacillin-tazobactam. However, 96% (74/77) of isolates were resistant to moxifloxacin. For patients treated at MCR, the mean patient age was 55 years (standard deviation [SD], 17), with 9 females (35%), and all were neutropenic at the time of BSI. The primary sources of infection were gastrointestinal (58%), intravascular catheter (35%), and odontogenic (15%). Patients were treated with metronidazole (42%), piperacillin-tazobactam (27%), or carbapenems (19%). The mean duration of treatment was 11 days (SD, 4.5), with a 60-day all-cause mortality of 19% and no microbiologic relapse. Leptotrichia species are rare but important causes of BSI in neutropenic patients. Due to evolving antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, a review of AST results is necessary when selecting optimal antimicrobial therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of clinical microbiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2023


  • Gram-negative
  • Leptotrichia
  • anaerobes
  • immunocompromised hosts
  • neutropenia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)


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