Latent Factor Structure of Outcome Measures Used in the HABIT® Mild Cognitive Impairment Intervention Programs

Brittany Defeis, Gelan Ying, Andrea M. Kurasz, Liselotte De Wit, Priscilla Amofa, Melanie Chandler, Dona Locke, Anne Shandera-Ochsner, Vaishali Phatak, Glenn Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: In Alzheimer's disease and related disorders (ADRD) research, common outcome measures include cognitive and functional impairment, as well as persons with mild cognitive impairment (pwMCI) and care partner self-reported mood and quality of life. Studies commonly analyze these measures separately, which potentially leads to issues of multiple comparisons and/or multicollinearity among measures while ignoring the latent constructs they may be measuring. Objective: This study sought to examine the latent factor structure of a battery of 12-13 measures of domains mentioned above, used in a multicomponent behavioral intervention (The HABIT® program) for pwMCI and their partners. Methods: Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) involved 214 pwMCI-partner pairs. Subsequent Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) used 730 pairs in both pre- and post-intervention conditions. Results: EFA generated a three-factor model. Factors could be characterized as partner adjustment (29.9%), pwMCI adjustment (18.1%), and pwMCI impairment (12.8%). The subsequent CFA confirmed our findings, and the goodness-of-fit for this model was adequate in both the pre- (CFI=0.937; RMSEA=0.057, p=0.089) and post-intervention (CFI=0.942; RMSEA=0.051, p=0.430) groups. Conclusion: Results demonstrated a stable factor structure across cohorts and intervention conditions suggesting that three broad factors may provide a straightforward and meaningful model to assess intervention outcome, at least during the MCI phase of ADRD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)193-205
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Alzheimer's Disease
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2021


  • Behavioral intervention
  • caregiver burden
  • factor analysis
  • functional status
  • mild cognitive impairment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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