Ischemic mitral regurgitation: Long-term outcome and prognostic implications with quantitative Doppler assessment

Francesco Grigioni, Maurice Enriquez-Sarano, Kenton J. Zehr, Kent R. Bailey, A. Jamil Tajik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1095 Scopus citations


Background - Myocardial infarction (MI) can directly cause ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR), which has been touted as an indicator of poor prognosis in acute and early phases after MI. However, in the chronic post-MI phase, prognostic implications of IMR presence and degree are poorly defined. Methods and Results - We analyzed 303 patients with previous (>16 days) Q-wave MI by ECG who underwent transthoracic echocardiography: 194 with IMR quantitatively assessed in routine practice and 109 without IMR matched for baseline age (71±11 versus 70±9 years, P=0.20), sex, and ejection fraction (EF, 33±14% versus 34±11%, P=0.14). In IMR patients, regurgitant volume (RVol) and effective regurgitant orifice (ERO) area were 36±24 mL/beat and 21±12 mm2, respectively. After 5 years, total mortality and cardiac mortality for patients with IMR (62±5% and 50±6%, respectively) were higher than for those without IMR (39±6% and 30±5%, respectively) (both P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, independently of all baseline characteristics, particularly age and EF, the adjusted relative risks of total and cardiac mortality associated with the presence of IMR (1.88, P=0.003 and 1.83, P=0.014, respectively) and quantified degree of IMR defined by RVol ≥30 mL (2.05, P=0.002 and 2.01, P=0.009) and by ERO ≥20 mm2 (2.23, P=0.003 and 2.38, P=0.004) were high. Conclusions - In the chronic phase after MI, IMR presence is associated with excess mortality independently of baseline characteristics and degree of ventricular dysfunction. The mortality risk is related directly to the degree of IMR as defined by ERO and RVol. Therefore, IMR detection and quantification provide major information for risk stratification and clinical decision making in the chronic post-MI phase.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1759-1764
Number of pages6
Issue number13
StatePublished - Apr 3 2001


  • Infarction
  • Mitral valve
  • Prognosis
  • Regurgitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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