Is smoking related to body image satisfaction, stress, and self-esteem in young adults?

Ivana T. Croghan, Carrie Bronars, Christi A. Patten, Darrell R. Schroeder, Liza M. Nirelli, Janet L. Thomas, Matthew M. Clark, Kristin S. Vickers, Randi Foraker, Kristi Lane, Daniel Houlihan, Kenneth P. Offord, Richard D. Hurt

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

64 Scopus citations


Objectives: To examine the association of smoking and gender with body image satisfaction, perceived stress, and self-esteem in young adults. Methods: Respondents completed a survey consisting of Perceived Stress Scale, Body-Areas Satisfaction Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Current smokers (n=483) and never smokers (n=973) are included. Results: Smoking and female gender were independently associated with higher perceived stress (P<0.001). Female gender was associated with lower body image satisfaction and lower self-esteem (P<0.001). Current smoking was associated with lower self-esteem (P=0.007). Conclusion: Smoking treatment should include stress management and self-esteem and body image improvement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)322-333
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal of Health Behavior
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 1 2006


  • Body image satisfaction
  • Self-esteem
  • Smoking
  • Stress
  • Young adults

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Social Psychology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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