Intracardiac echocardiography during atrial septal defect and patent foramen ovale device closure in pediatric and adolescent patients

Beth A. Medford, Nathaniel W. Taggart, Allison K. Cabalka, Frank Cetta, Guy S. Reeder, Donald J. Hagler, Jonathan N. Johnson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


RESULTS: One hundred fifteen patients (65 female; mean age, 12 ± 6 years; range, 10 months to 21 years) were included. All intracardiac echocardiographic studies were performed by the interventional cardiologist performing the catheterization. ICE was used to facilitate ASD closure in 92 patients (81%) and patent foramen ovale closure in 23 (19%). Thirty-eight patients (34%) underwent cardiac catheterization and ICE without general anesthesia. ICE was correlated highly with preprocedural TTE in predicting ASD size (r(2) = 0.76, P < .0001). In nine of 92 patients (9.8%) with ASDs, ICE identified deficient septal rims (n = 8) or complex or multiple ASDs (n = 1) that necessitated surgical closure. There were no major complications.

CONCLUSIONS: ICE can be performed safely and effectively in a large cohort of children and adolescents undergoing percutaneous device closure. ICE may obviate the need for general anesthesia in some patients and is a reasonable alternative to transesophageal echocardiography for this catheter-based procedure in children. ASD measurements with ICE correlate well with preprocedural measurements on TTE; however, ICE more accurately identifies the absence or deficiency of critical septal rims before device closure.

BACKGROUND: Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) is commonly used during interventional cardiac catheterization in adults, but data regarding the use of ICE in children are limited. There are no data available comparing the effectiveness of preprocedural transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) with that of intraprocedural ICE in predicting atrial septal defect (ASD) size and rim adequacy for percutaneous closure in a pediatric population. The objectives of this study were to describe the investigators' experience using ICE in pediatric and adolescent patients and to compare the effectiveness of preprocedural TTE with that of ICE in predicting ASD size and rim adequacy for percutaneous closure.

METHODS: In this retrospective study, all cases in which ICE was used during ASD or patent foramen ovale closure in patients ≤21 years of age at a single institution from January 2002 through October 2013 were reviewed. All studies were performed using the Acuson AcuNav ICE system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)984-990
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1 2014


  • Atrial
  • Defect
  • Echocardiography
  • Foramen
  • ICE
  • Interventional
  • Intracardiac
  • Ovale
  • Patent
  • Pediatric
  • Septal
  • TTE
  • Transthoracic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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