Interventions for smokeless tobacco use cessation

Jon O. Ebbert, V. Montori, K. S. Vickers, P. C. Erwin, L. C. Dale, L. F. Stead

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


Background: Use of smokeless tobacco (ST) can lead to nicotine addiction and long-term use can lead to health problems including periodontal disease and cancer. Objectives: To assess the effects of behavioural and pharmacologic interventions for the treatment of ST use. Search strategy: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Dissertation Abstracts Online, and Scopus. Date of last search: March, 2007. Selection criteria: Randomized trials of behavioural or pharmacological interventions to help users of ST to quit with follow up of at least six months. Data collection and analysis: Two authors independently extracted data. Main results: Two trials of bupropion SRdid not detect a benefit of treatment at six months or longer (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.86, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.47 to 1.57). Four trials of nicotine patch did not detect a benefit (OR 1.16, 95% CI: 0.88 to 1.54), nor did two trials of nicotine gum (OR 0.98, 95%CI: 0.59 to 1.63). There was statistical heterogeneity among the results of 12 behavioural interventions included in the meta-analyses. Six trials showed significant benefits of intervention. In post-hoc subgroup analyses, behavioural interventions which include telephone counselling or an oral examination may increase abstinence rates more than interventions without these components. Authors' conclusions: Behavioural interventions should be used to help ST users to quit and telephone counselling or an oral examination may increase abstinence rates. Pharmacotherapies have not been shown to affect long-term abstinence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberCD004306
JournalCochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2007


  • *Tobacco, smokeless
  • Bupropion [therapeutic use]
  • Chewing gum
  • Counseling
  • Humans
  • Nicotine [therapeutic use]
  • Nicotinic agonists [therapeutic use]
  • Randomized controlled trials as topic
  • Tobacco use cessation [*methods]

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)


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