Liver transplant remains the definitive therapy for patients with end-stage liver disease. Outcomes have continued to improve, in part owing to interventions used to treat posttransplant complications in-volving the hepatic arteries, portal vein, hepatic veins or inferior vena cava (IVC), and biliary system. Significant hepatic artery stenosis can be treated with angioplasty or stent placement to prevent thrombosis and biliary ischemic complications. Hepatic arterioportal fistula and hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm are rare complications that can often be treated with endovascular means. Treatment of hepatic artery thrombosis can have mixed results. Portal vein stenosis can be treated with venoplasty or more commonly stent placement. The rarer portal vein thrombosis can also be treated with endovascular techniques. Hepatic venous outflow stenosis of the hepatic veins or IVC is amenable to venoplasty or stent placement. Complications of the bile ducts are the most encountered complication after liver transplant.When not amenable to endoscopic intervention, biliary stricture, bile leak, and ischemic cholangiopathy can be treated with percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography with biliary drainage and other interventions. New techniques have further improved care for these patients. Transsplenic portal vein recanalization has improved transplant candidacy for patients with chronic portal vein thrombosis. Spontaneous splenorenal shunt and splenic artery steal syndrome (nonocclusive hepatic artery hypoperfusion syndrome) remain complicated topics, and the role of endovascular embolization is developing.When patients have recurrence of cirrhosis after transplant, most commonly due to viral hepatitis, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) may be required to treat symptoms of portal hypertension. Online supplemental material is available for this article.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging