Indications for neuromuscular ultrasound: Expert opinion and review of the literature

Francis O. Walker, Michael S. Cartwright, Katharine E. Alter, Leo H. Visser, Lisa D. Hobson-Webb, Luca Padua, Jeffery A. Strakowski, David C. Preston, Andrea J. Boon, Hubertus Axer, Nens van Alfen, Eman A. Tawfik, Einar Wilder-Smith, Joon Shik Yoon, Byung Jo Kim, Ari Breiner, Jeremy D.P. Bland, Alexander Grimm, Craig M. Zaidman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Over the last two decades, dozens of applications have emerged for ultrasonography in neuromuscular disorders. We wanted to measure its impact on practice in laboratories where the technique is in frequent use. After identifying experts in neuromuscular ultrasound and electrodiagnosis, we assessed their use of ultrasonography for different indications and their expectations for its future evolution. We then identified the earliest papers to provide convincing evidence of the utility of ultrasound for particular indications and analyzed the relationship of their date of publication with expert usage. We found that experts use ultrasonography often for inflammatory, hereditary, traumatic, compressive and neoplastic neuropathies, and somewhat less often for neuronopathies and myopathies. Usage significantly correlated with the timing of key publications in the field. We review these findings and the extensive evidence supporting the value of neuromuscular ultrasound. Advancement of the field of clinical neurophysiology depends on widespread translation of these findings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2658-2679
Number of pages22
JournalClinical Neurophysiology
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2018


  • Diaphragm
  • Electromyography
  • Motor neuron disease
  • Myopathy
  • Nerve conduction studies
  • Neuropathy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Sensory Systems
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Physiology (medical)


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