Indications, effectiveness, and long-term dependency in permanent pacing after cardiac surgery

Michael Glikson, Joseph A. Dearani, Linda K. Hyberger, Hartzell V. Schaff, Stephen C. Hammill, David L. Hayes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

78 Scopus citations


The purposes of this study were to define predictors of long-term pacemaker dependency in patients having permanent pacemakers implanted shortly after cardiac surgery, and to evaluate short- and long-term results and survival in this population. Data from 120 adult patients with implantation since 1980 were retrospectively analyzed. Acute and chronic complication rates (4.2% and 16.6%, respectively) were not higher than those expected in the general paced population. In addition, continuous rhythm was evaluated by use of pacemaker inhibition in a subgroup of 20 patients to verily the validity of clinical criteria for pacemaker dependency. Of the patients evaluated for dependency, 41% eventually became nondependent. Prolonged monitoring with an inhibited pacemaker confirmed the accuracy of our method of clinical evaluation of pacemaker dependency. Significant predictors of long-term pacemaker dependency were complete atrioventricular block as the indication and bypass time of >120 minutes by multivariate and univariate analyses, respectively). Postoperative complete atrioventricular block is the most important predictor of pacemaker dependency, enabling an earlier decision on permanent pacemaker implantation (no later than the sixth and the ninth postoperative days for wide-complex and narrow-complex escape, respectively). Further prospective studies are needed to define optimal implantation times for indications other than complete atrioventricular block.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1309-1313
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Cardiology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Nov 15 1997

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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