Incidental patent foramen ovale in adult cardiac surgery: Recent evidence and management options for the perioperative echocardiographer

Harish Ramakrishna, Prakash A. Patel, Jacob T. Gutsche, Benjamin A. Kohl, Joseph S. Savino, John G.T. Augoustides

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1691-1695
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1 2014


  • cardiopulmonary bypass
  • clinical outcomes
  • contrast echocardiography
  • coronary artery bypass grafting
  • heart transplantation
  • left ventricular assist device
  • patent foramen ovale
  • pulmonary hyperten-sion
  • second harmonic imaging
  • selective pulmonary vasodilator
  • stroke
  • three-dimensional echocardio-graphy
  • transesophageal echocardiogra-phy
  • transthoracic echocardiography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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