Immunohistochemical approach to the diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms

Ricardo V. Lioyd, Jason N. Rosenbabaum, Lorl A. Erickson

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


Pancreatic endocrine tumors include a broad spectrum of neoplasms. Immunohistochemical characterization of the tumors along with clinical evaluation is used to separate tumors into functioning and nonfunctioning neoplasms. Immunohistochemical detection of specific transcription factors can be helpful in the diagnosis and in the differential diagnosis of metastatic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Immunostaining for Ki-67 along with mitotic indices are the commonly used methods for grading pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. In addition to the hormones normally detected in the pancreatic islets, a small percentage of pancreatic endocrine tumors produce ectopic hormones. Most pancreatic endocrine tumors that produce ectopic hormones are malignant tumors, but the molecular mechanisms of ectopic hormone production are not known. Immunohistochemical methods have become the cornerstone for diagnosis and for prognostic evaluation of pancreatic endocrine tumors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms
Subtitle of host publicationPractical Approach to Diagnosis, Classification, and Therapy
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9783319172354
ISBN (Print)9783319172347
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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