Imaging Assessment of Endothelial Function: An Index of Cardiovascular Health

Anum S. Minhas, Erin Goerlich, Mary C. Corretti, Armin Arbab-Zadeh, Sebastian Kelle, Thorsten Leucker, Amir Lerman, Allison G. Hays

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Endothelial dysfunction is a key early mechanism in a variety of cardiovascular diseases and can be observed in larger conduit arteries as well as smaller resistance vessels (microvascular dysfunction). The presence of endothelial dysfunction is a strong prognosticator for cardiovascular events and mortality, and assessment of endothelial function can aid in selecting therapies and testing their response. While the gold standard method of measuring coronary endothelial function remains invasive angiography, several non-invasive imaging techniques have emerged for investigating both coronary and peripheral endothelial function. In this review, we will explore and summarize the current invasive and non-invasive modalities available for endothelial function assessment for clinical and research use, and discuss the strengths, limitations and future applications of each technique.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number778762
JournalFrontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
StatePublished - Apr 15 2022


  • CAD
  • CMR
  • coronary MRI
  • endothelial function
  • vascular disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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