Magnesium is an essential element that is involved in critical metabolic pathways. A diet deficient in magnesium is associated with an increased risk of developing cancer. Few studies have reported whether a serum magnesium level below the reference range (RR) is associated with prognosis in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Using a retrospective approach in DLBCL patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplant (AHSCT), we evaluated the association of hypomagnesemia with survival. Totally, 581 patients eligible for AHSCT with a serum magnesium level during the immediate pre-transplant period were identified and 14.1% (82/581) had hypomagnesemia. Hypomagnesemia was associated with an inferior event-free (EFS) and overall survival (OS) compared to patients with a serum magnesium level within RR; median EFS: 3.9 years (95% CI: 1.63–8.98 years) versus 6.29 years (95% CI: 4.73–8.95 years) with HR 1.63 (95% CI: 1.09–2.43, p = 0.017) for EFS, and median OS: 7.3 years (95% CI: 2.91—upper limit not estimable) versus 9.7 years (95% CI: 6.92–12.3 years) with HR 1.90 (95% CI: 1.22–2.96, p = 0.005) for OS months 0–12, respectively. These findings suggest a potentially actionable prognostic factor for patients with DLBCL undergoing AHSCT.
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