Hospitalizations for Acute on Chronic Liver Failure at Academic Compared to Non-academic Centers Have Higher Mortality

Ashwani K. Singal, Zunirah Ahmed, Page Axley, Sumant Arora, Juan P. Arab, Allen Haas, Yong Fang Kuo, Patrick S. Kamath

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background and Aim: Acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) in patients with cirrhosis has high short-term mortality. Data comparing ACLF admissions to academic centers (AC) and non-academic centers (NAC) are scanty. Methods: National Inpatient Sample (2006–2014) was queried for admissions with cirrhosis and ACLF using the ICD-09 codes, and was stratified to AC or NAC. Results: Of 1,928,764 admissions with cirrhosis (2006–2014), 112,174 (5. 9%) had ACLF. 6.7% of 1,018,568 cirrhosis admissions to AC had ACLF versus 5% of 910,196 admissions to NAC, P < 0.0001. Proportion of ACLF admissions to AC increased from 49% during 2006–2008 to 59% during 2012–2014. In a cohort of 73,630 ACLF admissions (36,615 each to AC and NAC) matched for patient demographics, cirrhosis etiology, number of comorbidities, elective versus emergent admission, ACLF grade, and type of organ failure. In-hospital mortality declined by 7% over the study period, but remained higher in AC (46% vs. 42%, P < 0.001), with 11% increased odds for in-hospital mortality compared to admission to NAC. Further admissions to AC versus NAC had higher median (IQR) length of stay at 13 (6–25) versus 11 (5–20) days, with higher median (IQR) hospital charges: 138,239 (66,772–275,603) versus 116,209 (55,767–232,699) USD, P < 0.001 for both. Conclusion: Patients with ACLF have high in-hospital mortality. Further, this is higher among admissions to AC. Although the in-hospital mortality is improving, strategies are needed on early identification of patients with futility of care for early discussion on goals of care, and optimal utilization of hospital resources among admissions with ACLF.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1306-1314
Number of pages9
JournalDigestive diseases and sciences
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2021


  • ACLF
  • Admissions
  • Cirrhosis
  • Health care burden
  • Resources

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Gastroenterology


Dive into the research topics of 'Hospitalizations for Acute on Chronic Liver Failure at Academic Compared to Non-academic Centers Have Higher Mortality'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this