Background and Aim: The etiology of liver diseases has changed in recent years, but its impact on the comparative burden of liver cancer between males and females is unclear. We estimated sex differences in the burden of liver cancer across 204 countries and territories from 2010 to 2019. Approach and Result: We analyzed temporal trends in the burden of liver cancer using the methodology framework of the 2019 Global Burden of Disease study. We estimated annual frequencies and age-standardized rates (ASRs) of liver cancer incidence, death, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) by sex, country, region, and etiology of liver disease. Globally in 2019, the frequency of incident cases, deaths, and DALYs due to liver cancer were 376,483, 333,672, and 9,048,723 in males, versus 157,881, 150,904, and 3,479,699 in females. From 2010 to 2019, the incidence ASRs in males increased while death and DALY ASRs remained stable; incidence, death, and DALY ASRs in females decreased. Death ASRs for both sexes increased only in the Americas and remained stable or declined in remaining regions. In 2019, hepatitis B was the leading cause of liver cancer death in males, and hepatitis C in females. From 2010 to 2019, NASH had the fastest growing death ASRs in males and females. The ratio of female-to-male death ASRs in 2019 was lowest in hepatitis B (0.2) and highest in NASH (0.9). Conclusions: The overall burden of liver cancer is higher in males, although incidence and death ASRs from NASH-associated liver cancer in females approach that of males.
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