Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) overlap syndromes are uniquely classified neoplasms occurring in both children and adults. This category consists of 5 neoplastic subtypes: chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), BCR-ABL1-negative atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML), MDS/ MPN-ring sideroblasts and thrombocytosis (MDS/MPN-RS-T), and MDS/MPN-unclassifiable (U). Cytogenetic abnormalities and somatic copy number variations are uncommon; however, >90% patients harbor gene mutations. Although no single gene mutation is specific to a disease subtype, certain mutational signatures in the context of appropriate clinical and morphological features can be used to establish a diagnosis. In CMML, mutated coexpression of TET2 and SRSF2 results in clonal hematopoiesis skewed toward monocytosis, and the ensuing acquisition of driver mutations including ASXL1, NRAS, and CBL results in overt disease. MDS/MPN-RS-T demonstrates features of SF3B1-mutant MDS with ring sideroblasts (MDS-RS), with the development of thrombocytosis secondary to the acquisition of signaling mutations, most commonly JAK2V617F. JMML, the only pediatric entity, is a bona fide RASopathy, with germline and somatic mutations occurring in the oncogenic RAS pathway giving rise to disease. BCR-ABL1-negative aCML is characterized by dysplastic neutrophilia and is enriched in SETBP1 and ETNK1 mutations, whereas MDS/MPN-U is the least defined and lacks a characteristic mutational signature. Molecular profiling also provides prognostic information, with truncating ASXL1 mutations being universally detrimental and germline CBL mutations in JMML showing spontaneous regression. Sequencing information in certain cases can help identify potential targeted therapies (IDH1, IDH2, and splicing mutations) and should be a mainstay in the diagnosis and management of these neoplasms.
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