Generating spiral gradient waveforms with a compact frequency spectrum

James G. Pipe, Daniel D. Borup

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To generate efficient gradient waveforms for spiral MRI which mitigate the high-frequency attenuation inherent in gradient systems. Theory and Methods: Spiral MRI has many clinical advantages, including high temporal and SNR efficiency. One of the challenges for robust spiral MRI is a high sensitivity to imperfections in the gradient system, which requires some form of correction in order to map data correctly in k-space. A previous numerical algorithm for generating spiral gradient waveforms was modified to reduce its high-frequency content with minimal increase in waveform duration. Results: Examples are shown of compact frequency gradient waveforms. Software implementing the algorithm is made available. Conclusion: An algorithm to produce gradient waveforms with a compact frequency spectrum is described. This algorithm results in greatly reduced overall error and better compatibility with gradient systems than the original algorithm from which it was derived.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)791-799
Number of pages9
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2022


  • gradient transfer function
  • rapid MRI
  • spiral MRI

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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