Gene expression profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the setting of peripheral arterial disease

Rizwan Masud, Khader Shameer, Aparna Dhar, Keyue Ding, Iftikhar J. Kullo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a relatively common manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis that leads to progressive narrowing of the lumen of leg arteries. Circulating monocytes are in contact with the arterial wall and can serve as reporters of vascular pathology in the setting of PAD. We performed gene expression analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in patients with PAD and controls without PAD to identify differentially regulated genes.Methods: PAD was defined as an ankle brachial index (ABI) ≤0.9 (n = 19) while age and gender matched controls had an ABI > 1.0 (n = 18). Microarray analysis was performed using Affymetrix HG-U133 plus 2.0 gene chips and analyzed using GeneSpring GX 11.0. Gene expression data was normalized using Robust Multichip Analysis (RMA) normalization method, differential expression was defined as a fold change ≥1.5, followed by unpaired Mann-Whitney test (P < 0.05) and correction for multiple testing by Benjamini and Hochberg False Discovery Rate. Meta-analysis of differentially expressed genes was performed using an integrated bioinformatics pipeline with tools for enrichment analysis using Gene Ontology (GO) terms, pathway analysis using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), molecular event enrichment using Reactome annotations and network analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis suite. Extensive biocuration was also performed to understand the functional context of genes.Results: We identified 87 genes differentially expressed in the setting of PAD; 40 genes were upregulated and 47 genes were downregulated. We employed an integrated bioinformatics pipeline coupled with literature curation to characterize the functional coherence of differentially regulated genes.Conclusion: Notably, upregulated genes mediate immune response, inflammation, apoptosis, stress response, phosphorylation, hemostasis, platelet activation and platelet aggregation. Downregulated genes included several genes from the zinc finger family that are involved in transcriptional regulation. These results provide insights into molecular mechanisms relevant to the pathophysiology of PAD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6
JournalJournal of Clinical Bioinformatics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 12 2012


  • Biomarkers
  • Gene expression
  • Microarray analysis
  • Peripheral arterial disease
  • Vascular disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Informatics


Dive into the research topics of 'Gene expression profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the setting of peripheral arterial disease'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this