Gastrointestinal bleeding at ct angiography and ct enterography: Imaging atlas and glossary of terms

Flavius F. Guglielmo, Michael L. Wells, David H. Bruining, Lisa L. Strate, Álvaro Huete, Avneesh Gupta, Jorge A. Soto, Brian C. Allen, Mark A. Anderson, Olga R. Brook, Michael S. Gee, David J. Grand, Martin L. Gunn, Ashish Khandelwal, Seong Ho Park, Vijay Ramalingam, Farnoosh Sokhandon, Don C. Yoo, Jeff L. Fidler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common potentially life-threat-ening medical condition frequently requiring multidisciplinary collaboration to reach the proper diagnosis and guide manage-ment. GI bleeding can be overt (eg, visible hemorrhage such as he-matemesis, hematochezia, or melena) or occult (eg, positive fecal occult blood test or iron deficiency anemia). Upper GI bleeding, which originates proximal to the ligament of Treitz, is more common than lower GI bleeding, which arises distal to the ligament of Treitz. Small bowel bleeding accounts for 5–10% of GI bleeding cases commonly manifesting as obscure GI bleeding, where the source remains un-known after complete GI tract endoscopic and imaging evaluation. CT can aid in identifying the location and cause of bleeding and is an important complementary tool to endoscopy, nuclear medicine, and angiography in evaluating patients with GI bleeding. For radi-ologists, interpreting CT scans in patients with GI bleeding can be challenging owing to the large number of images and the diverse potential causes of bleeding. The purpose of this pictorial review by the Society of Abdominal Radiology GI Bleeding Disease-Focused Panel is to provide a practical resource for radiologists interpreting GI bleeding CT studies that reviews the proper GI bleeding terminology, the most common causes of GI bleeding, key patient history and risk factors, the optimal CT imaging technique, and guidelines for case interpretation and illustrates many common causes of GI bleeding. A CT reporting template is included to help generate radiology reports that can add value to patient care. An invited commentary by Al Hawary is available online. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1632-1656
Number of pages25
Issue number6
StatePublished - Oct 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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