Functional Mitral Regurgitation: Imaging Insights, Clinical Outcomes and Surgical Principles

Nozomi Watanabe, Simon Maltais, Shun Nishino, Tara A. O'Donoghue, Judy Hung

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Functional mitral regurgitation (MR; FMR) is the most common type of MR and its development is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Leaflet tethering with apical shift of the papillary muscle due to adverse left ventricular remodeling and loss of normal leaflet coaptation is the principal mechanism of FMR. Echocardiography plays a central role in the assessment of the FMR. The development of 3D echocardiography has allowed for assessment of the geometric changes of mitral valve morphology and spatial relationship with the left ventricle that accompanies FMR. 2D/3D echocardiographic findings, clinical outcomes of FMR are reviewed and role of surgical intervention is discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)351-360
Number of pages10
JournalProgress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Issue number3
StatePublished - Nov 2017


  • Echocardiography
  • Functional mitral regurgitation
  • Mitral valve
  • Surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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