Frequency-dependent lipid raft uptake at rat diaphragm muscle axon terminals

Maria A. Gonzalez Porras, Matthew J. Fogarty, Heather M. Gransee, Gary C. Sieck, Carlos B. Mantilla

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Introduction: In motor neurons, cholera toxin B (CTB) binds to the cell-surface ganglioside GM1 and is internalized and transported via structurally unique components of plasma membranes (lipid rafts). Methods: Lipid raft uptake by axon terminals adjoining type-identified rat diaphragm muscle fibers was investigated using CTB and confocal imaging. Results: Lipid raft uptake increased significantly at higher frequency stimulation (80 Hz), compared with lower frequency (20 Hz) and unstimulated (0 Hz) conditions. The fraction of axon terminal occupied by CTB was ∼45% at 0- or 20-Hz stimulation, and increased to ∼65% at 80 Hz. Total CTB fluorescence intensity also increased (∼20%) after 80-Hz stimulation compared with 0 Hz. Discussion: Evidence of increased lipid raft uptake at high stimulation frequencies supports an important role for lipid raft signaling at rat diaphragm muscle axon terminals, primarily for motor units physiologically activated at the higher frequencies. Muscle Nerve 59:611–611, 2019.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)611-618
Number of pages8
JournalMuscle and Nerve
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2019


  • bulk endocytosis
  • cholera toxin
  • clathrin
  • motor neuron
  • neuromuscular junction
  • synaptic vesicle retrieval

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Physiology (medical)


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