Four-dimensional computed tomographic imaging in the wrist: Proof of feasibility in a cadaveric model

Shian Chao Tay, Andrew N. Primak, Joel G. Fletcher, Bernhard Schmidt, Kimberly K. Amrami, Richard A. Berger, Cynthia H. McCollough

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Objective: High-resolution real-time three-dimensional (3D) imaging of the moving wrist may provide novel insights into the pathophysiology of joint instability. The purpose of this work was to assess the feasibility of using retrospectively gated spiral computed tomography (CT) to perform four-dimensional (4D) imaging of the moving wrist joint. Materials and methods: A cadaver forearm from below the elbow was mounted on a motion simulator which performed radioulnar deviation of the wrist at 30 cycles per minute. An electronic trigger from the simulator provided the "electrocardiogram" (ECG) signal required for gated reconstructions. Four-dimensional and 3D images were compared by a blinded observer for image quality and presence of artifacts. Results: Image quality of 4D images was found to be excellent at the extremes of radial and ulnar deviation (end-motion phases). Some artifacts were seen in mid-motion phases. Conclusion: 4D CT musculoskeletal imaging is feasible. Four-dimensional CT may allow clinicians to assess functional (dynamic) instabilities of the wrist joint.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1163-1169
Number of pages7
JournalSkeletal Radiology
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2007


  • Dynamic carpal instabilities
  • Dynamic real-time musculoskeletal imaging
  • Four-dimensional wrist imaging
  • Multi-detector CT
  • Retrospectively gated spiral computed tomography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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