Fluctuation of systemic immunity in melanoma and implications for timing of therapy

Alexey A. Leontovich, Roxana S. Dronca, Vera J. Suman, Martin L. Ashdown, Wendy K. Nevala, Michael A. Thompson, Andrew Robinson, Lisa A. Kottschade, Judith S. Kaur, Robert R. McWilliams, Leonid V. Ivanov, Gary A. Croghan, Svetomir N. Markovic

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Evidence suggests that immunological response in chronic inflammation is dynamic, oscillating between active immunity and tolerance. We hypothesized that a similar dynamic exists in melanoma and administration of therapy during a unique phase of such oscillation could impact clinical outcome. Patients with metastatic melanoma eligible to undergo temozolomide underwent serial measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP) and immune biomarkers every 2-3 days for 2 weeks before starting therapy. Treatment was initiated prior to the estimated next CRP peak, or on day 14 post-registration if a peak was not identified. Time profiles of measured biomarkers were analyzed by fitting serially measured data points to 9 mathematical functions and were correlated to time of therapy and outcome. Data suggested that metastatic melanoma patients exhibit a dynamic immune response. The fluctuation of several biomarkers fitted cosine functions with periods which were multiples of 3-4 days. Chemotherapy delivery during a unique phase of this cycle seemed to correlate with improved response. Individualized conventional chemotherapy delivery by synchronizing treatment with pre-existing patient-specific biorhythms may improve clinical outcomes in metastatic melanoma.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)958-975
Number of pages18
JournalFrontiers in Bioscience - Elite
Volume4 E
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 1 2012


  • Biorhythm
  • Cancer
  • Computer simulation
  • Cytokines
  • Dynamics
  • Immune Cells
  • Inflammation
  • Infradian
  • Oscillation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Immunology and Microbiology


Dive into the research topics of 'Fluctuation of systemic immunity in melanoma and implications for timing of therapy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this