Extracellular vesicles as personalized medicine

Danielle J. Beetler, Damian N. Di Florio, Katelyn A. Bruno, Tsuneya Ikezu, Keith L. March, Leslie T. Cooper, Joy Wolfram, De Lisa Fairweather

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released from all cells in the body, forming an important intercellular communication network that contributes to health and disease. The contents of EVs are cell source-specific, inducing distinct signaling responses in recipient cells. The specificity of EVs and their accumulation in fluid spaces that are accessible for liquid biopsies make them highly attractive as potential biomarkers and therapies for disease. The duality of EVs as favorable (therapeutic) or unfavorable (pathological) messengers is context dependent and remains to be fully determined in homeostasis and various disease states. This review describes the use of EVs as biomarkers, drug delivery vehicles, and regenerative therapeutics, highlighting examples involving viral infections, cancer, and neurological diseases. There is growing interest to provide personalized therapy based on individual patient and disease characteristics. Increasing evidence suggests that EV biomarkers and therapeutic approaches are ideal for personalized medicine due to the diversity and multifunctionality of EVs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101155
JournalMolecular Aspects of Medicine
StatePublished - Jun 2023


  • Cancer
  • Immune response
  • Nanomedicine
  • Neurological disease
  • Regenerative medicine
  • Viruses

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry


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