External Beam Radiation Therapy With or Without Brachytherapy Boost in Men With Very-High-Risk Prostate Cancer: A Large Multicenter International Consortium Analysis

Sagar A. Patel, Ting Martin Ma, Jessica K. Wong, Bradley J. Stish, Robert T. Dess, Avinash Pilar, Chandana Reddy, Trude B. Wedde, Wolfgang A. Lilleby, Ryan Fiano, Gregory S. Merrick, Richard G. Stock, D. Jeffrey Demanes, Brian J. Moran, Phuoc T. Tran, Daniel J. Krauss, Eyad I. Abu-Isa, Thomas M. Pisansky, C. Richard Choo, Daniel Y. SongStephen Greco, Curtiland Deville, Theodore L. DeWeese, Derya Tilki, Jay P. Ciezki, R. Jeffrey Karnes, Nicholas G. Nickols, Matthew B. Rettig, Felix Y. Feng, Alejandro Berlin, Jonathan D. Tward, Brian J. Davis, Robert E. Reiter, Paul C. Boutros, Tahmineh Romero, Eric M. Horwitz, Rahul D. Tendulkar, Michael L. Steinberg, Daniel E. Spratt, Michael Xiang, Amar U. Kishan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: Very-high-risk (VHR) prostate cancer (PC) is an aggressive subgroup with high risk of distant disease progression. Systemic treatment intensification with abiraterone or docetaxel reduces PC-specific mortality (PCSM) and distant metastasis (DM) in men receiving external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Whether prostate-directed treatment intensification with the addition of brachytherapy (BT) boost to EBRT with ADT improves outcomes in this group is unclear. Methods and Materials: This cohort study from 16 centers across 4 countries included men with VHR PC treated with either dose-escalated EBRT with ≥24 months of ADT or EBRT + BT boost with ≥12 months of ADT. VHR was defined by National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) criteria (clinical T3b-4, primary Gleason pattern 5, or ≥2 NCCN high-risk features), and results were corroborated in a subgroup of men who met Systemic Therapy in Advancing or Metastatic Prostate Cancer: Evaluation of Drug Efficacy (STAMPEDE) trials inclusion criteria (≥2 of the following: clinical T3-4, Gleason 8-10, or PSA ≥40 ng/mL). PCSM and DM between EBRT and EBRT + BT were compared using inverse probability of treatment weight-adjusted Fine-Gray competing risk regression. Results: Among the entire cohort, 270 underwent EBRT and 101 EBRT + BT. After a median follow-up of 7.8 years, 6.7% and 5.9% of men died of PC and 16.3% and 9.9% had DM after EBRT and EBRT + BT, respectively. There was no significant difference in PCSM (sHR, 1.47 [95% CI, 0.57-3.75]; P = .42) or DM (sHR, 0.72, [95% CI, 0.30-1.71]; P = .45) between EBRT + BT and EBRT. Results were similar within the STAMPEDE-defined VHR subgroup (PCSM: sHR, 1.67 [95% CI, 0.48-5.81]; P = .42; DM: sHR, 0.56 [95% CI, 0.15-2.04]; P = .38). Conclusions: In this VHR PC cohort, no difference in clinically meaningful outcomes was observed between EBRT alone with ≥24 months of ADT compared with EBRT + BT with ≥12 months of ADT. Comparative analyses in men treated with intensified systemic therapy are warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)645-653
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research


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