EUS-guided fine needle aspiration of the liver: Indications, yield, and safety based on an international survey of 167 cases

Jorgen TenBerge, Brenda J. Hoffman, Robert H. Hawes, Conny Van Enckevort, Marc Giovannini, Richard A. Erickson, Marc F. Catalano, Roberto Fogel, Shawn Mallery, Douglas O. Faigel, Angelo P. Ferrari, Irving Waxman, Larent Palazzo, Tamir Ben-Menachem, Paul S. Jowell, Kevin M. McGrath, Thomas E. Kowalski, Cuong C. Nguyen, Wahid Y. Wassef, Keiji YamaoAmitabh Chak, Bruce D. Greenwald, Timothy A. Woodward, Peter Vilmann, Luis Sabbagh, Michael B. Wallace

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

155 Scopus citations


Background: The liver is a common site of metastases for various malignancies. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of liver masses has only been reported in small series from single centers. Methods: A retrospective questionnaire was sent by e-mail to 130 EUS-FNA centers around the world regarding indications, complications, and findings of EUS-FNA of the liver. Results: Twenty-one centers reported 167 cases of EUS-FNA of the liver. A complication was reported in 6 (4%) of 167 cases including the following: death in 1 patient with an occluding biliary stent and biliary sepsis, bleeding (1), fever (2), and pain (2). EUS-FNA diagnosed malignancy in 23 of 26 (89%) cases after nondiagnostic fine needle aspiration under transabdominal US guidance. EUS localized an unrecognized primary tumor in 17 of 33 (52%) cases in which CT had demonstrated only liver metastases. EUS image characteristics were not predictive of malignant versus benign lesions. Conclusion: EUS-guided FNA of the liver appears to be a safe procedure with a major complication rate of approximately 1%. EUS-FNA should be considered when a liver lesion is poorly accessible to US-, or CT-guided FNA should be considered when US- or CT-guided FNA fail to make a diagnosis, when a liver lesion(s) is detected (de novo) by EUS, and for investigation of possible upper GI primary tumors in the setting of liver metastases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)859-862
Number of pages4
JournalGastrointestinal endoscopy
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jun 2002

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Gastroenterology


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