Endoscopic ultrasound staging of cholangiocarcinoma

Michael J. Levy, Julie K. Heimbach, Gregory J. Gores

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


Purpose of Review: Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignancy arising from biliary tract epithelium that is increasing in incidence and is associated with a poor prognosis. The difficulty in diagnosis and relatively poor staging accuracy complicate management. In this review we examine the utility of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), which is increasingly used in this setting to overcome the limitations of other imaging and biopsy techniques. Recent Findings: Inherent limitations of current approaches to cholangiocarcinoma diagnosis and staging have driven the pursuit of new technologies including EUS. However, there remains a relative paucity of data and some uncertainty as to the role of EUS within the diagnostic algorithm for patients with suspected or known cholangiocarcinoma. In addition, there is controversy regarding the role of EUS fine-needle aspiration, the findings of which may enhance diagnosis, but may also predispose to tumor seeding and iatrogenic upstaging. Summary: An emerging indication for EUS is the diagnosis and staging of cholangiocarcinoma. This information may be used to help guide patient care and improve outcomes, but may also be employed in a manner that risks patient well being.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)244-252
Number of pages9
JournalCurrent Opinion in Gastroenterology
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2012


  • biliary tract malignancy
  • cholangiocarcinoma
  • diagnosis
  • endoscopic ultrasound
  • fine-needle aspiration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology


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