Electrocardiographic markers of cardiac resynchronization therapy response: delayed time to intrinsicoid deflection onset in lateral leads

Rubén K.A. Tapia-Orihuela, S. Michael Gharacholou, Samuel J. Asirvatham, Freddy Del Carpio Munoz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has emerged as an important intervention for patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction and delayed ventricular activation. In these patients, CRT has demonstrated to improve quality of life, promote reverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling, reduce HF hospitalizations, and extend survival. However, despite advancements in our understanding of CRT, a significant number of patients do not respond to this therapy. Several invasive and non-invasive parameters have been assessed to predict response to CRT, but the electrocardiogram (ECG) has remained as the prevailing screening method albeit with limitations. Ideally, an accurate, simple, and reproducible ECG marker or set of markers would dramatically overcome the current limitations. We describe the clinical utility of an old ECG parameter that can estimate ventricular activation delay: the onset to intrinsicoid deflection (ID). Based on the concept of direct measurement of ventricular activation time (intrinsic deflection onset), time to ID onset measures on the surface ECG the time that the electrical activation time takes to reach the area subtended by the corresponding surface ECG lead. Based on this principle, the time to ID on the lateral leads can estimate the delay activation to the lateral LV wall and can be used as a predictor for CRT response, particularly in patients with non-specific intraventricular conduction delay or in patients with left bundle branch block and QRS < 150 ms. The aim of this review is to present the current evidence and potential use of this ECG parameter to estimate LV activation and predict CRT response.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)21-30
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Geriatric Cardiology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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