Efficacy and safety of transcranial magnetic stimulation on cognition in mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, Alzheimer's disease-related dementias, and other cognitive disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Sandeep R. Pagali, Rakesh Kumar, Allison M. LeMahieu, Michael R. Basso, Bradley F. Boeve, Paul E. Croarkin, Jennifer R. Geske, Leslie C. Hassett, John Huston, Simon Kung, Brian N. Lundstrom, Ronald C. Petersen, Erik K. St. Louis, Kirk M. Welker, Gregory A. Worrell, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Maria I. Lapid

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: We aim to analyze the efficacy and safety of TMS on cognition in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), AD-related dementias, and nondementia conditions with comorbid cognitive impairment. Design: Systematic review, Meta-Analysis Setting: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane database, APA PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Scopus from January 1, 2000, to February 9, 2023. Participants and interventions: RCTs, open-label, and case series studies reporting cognitive outcomes following TMS intervention were included. Measurement: Cognitive and safety outcomes were measured. Cochrane Risk of Bias for RCTs and MINORS (Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies) criteria were used to evaluate study quality. This study was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42022326423). Results: The systematic review included 143 studies (n = 5,800 participants) worldwide, encompassing 94 RCTs, 43 open-label prospective, 3 open-label retrospective, and 3 case series. The meta-analysis included 25 RCTs in MCI and AD. Collectively, these studies provide evidence of improved global and specific cognitive measures with TMS across diagnostic groups. Only 2 studies (among 143) reported 4 adverse events of seizures: 3 were deemed TMS unrelated and another resolved with coil repositioning. Meta-analysis showed large effect sizes on global cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination (SMD = 0.80 [0.26, 1.33], p = 0.003), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (SMD = 0.85 [0.26, 1.44], p = 0.005), Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (SMD = -0.96 [-1.32, -0.60], p < 0.001)) in MCI and AD, although with significant heterogeneity. Conclusion: The reviewed studies provide favorable evidence of improved cognition with TMS across all groups with cognitive impairment. TMS was safe and well tolerated with infrequent serious adverse events.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalInternational psychogeriatrics
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2024

Keywords

  • MCI
  • TMS
  • cognition
  • dementia
  • meta-analysis
  • mild cognitive impairment
  • systematic review
  • transcranial magnetic stimulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Gerontology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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